Открытая медицинская библиотека

Статьи и лекции по медицине ✚ Библиотека студента-медика ✚ Болезни и способы их лечения.

Фармакология Trachea and bronchi: topography, structure, blood and nerves supply. Lymphatic drainage
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The trachea or windpipe is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the lower part of the larynx, on a level with the sixth cervical vertebra, to the upper border of the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it divides into the two bronchi, one for each lung. The trachea is nearly but not quite cylindrical, being flattened posteriorly; it measures about 11 cm. in length; its diameter, from side to side, is from 2 to 2.5 cm., being always greater in the male than in the female. In the child the trachea is smaller, more deeply placed, and more movable than in the adult.

Structure: The anterior surface of the trachea is convex, and covered, in the neck, from above downward, by the isthmus of the thyroid gland, the inferior thyroid veins, the arteria thyroidea ima (when that vessel exists), the Sternothyreoideus and Sternohyoideus muscles, the cervical fascia, and, more superficially, by the anastomosing branches between the anterior jugular veins; in the thorax, it is covered from before backward by the manubrium sterni, the remains of the thymus, the left innominate vein, the aortic arch, the innominate and left common carotid arteries, and the deep cardiac plexus.

Vessels and Nerves: The trachea is supplied with blood by the inferior thyroid arteries. The veins end in the thyroid venous plexus. The nerves are derived from the vagus and the recurrent nerves, and from the sympathetic; they are distributed to the Trachealis muscles and between the epithelial cells.

The Right Bronchus (bronchus dexter), wider, shorter, and more vertical in direction than the left, is about 2.5 cm. long, and enters the right lung nearly opposite the fifth thoracic vertebra. The azygos vein arches over it from behind; and the right pulmonary artery lies at first below and then in front of it. About 2 cm. from its commencement it gives off a branch to the upper lobe of the right lung. This is termed the eparterial branch of the bronchus, because it arises above the right pulmonary artery. The bronchus now passes below the artery, and is known as the hyparterial branch; it divides into two branches for the middle and lower lobes.

The Left Bronchus (bronchus sinister) is smaller in caliber but longer than the right, being nearly 5 cm. long. It enters the root of the left lung opposite the sixth thoracic vertebra. It passes beneath the aortic arch, crosses in front of the esophagus, the thoracic duct, and the descending aorta, and has the left pulmonary artery lying at first above, and then in front of it.

Lungs: structure, topography. Bronchial and alveolar tree. Structural and functional unit of the lungs. Morpho-functional characteristics of skin covering of the trunk. Anatomy and topography of the thoracic cavity, intercostal spaces. Mammary gland: structure, blood and nerves supply. Lymphatic drainage.

309-314 привес русский!!!!!!!!!!